Normalized Messier Catalogue

Charles Messier was a french astronomer in the 18th century. During his hunt for comets, he regularily came across similar looking yet stationary (in relation to the stars) objects, which could not be classified further in that era. To exclude these faster, he finally created a list which contains 110 such objects,  known as the Messier Catalog. In that time probably nobody realized, that they just observed various nebulae, star clusters and distant galaxies.

All Messier Objects can be observed visually with even smal telescopes, since they are quite bright. As classic entry level objects they may even be observed under less optimal conditions or even at full moon. But, similar to Charles Messier, when observing visually you will not see much more than a bright spot in the dark sky.

For taking an image of a Messier Object, a somewhat longer focal range (above 1000mm) will be required. The galaxies in particular are rather small. Only few objects, like the nebula in Orion (M42), the Plejades (M45) or our neighboring galaxie Andromeda (M31) require a shorter focal length and can already be spotted with binoculars.

Several Messier Catalogs may be found in the internet with many great images. This catalog has a different approach. It does not target the best possible image for each object but a normalized representation of each object regarding exposure time, image processing and field of view. Each image was created from one hour exposure time (30x 30s L, 3x15x 60s R/G/B) and show a field of 30 arcminutes (0.5 degrees) squared.

All images were taken with the ASI2600MM Pro at the TSQ-100ED APO (580mm f/5.8). The images are a 1:1 crop of 1346x1346 pixels, just 15% of the pixels provided by the sensor. To avoid loss of details, only little denoise was applied. The slight variations in background are probably caused by different observing conditions which could not be compensated properly with this unified workflow.

This catalog was completed in December 2022, some targets will be updated with better versions, eventually.

Please note that, for the moment, my annotations are available in german language only. This will change over time. Please follow the links to Wikipedia to learn more about the particular objects.

M1 (NGC 1952)
Crab Nebula
M2 (NGC 7089)
M3 (NGC 5272)
M4 (NGC 6121)
M5 (NGC 5904)
M6 (NGC 6405)
Butterfly Cluster
M7 (NGC 6475)
Ptolemy Cluster
M8 (NGC 6523)
Lagoon Nebula
M9 (NGC 6333)
M10 (NGC 6254)
M11 (NGC 6705)
Wild Duck Cluster
M12 (NGC 6218)
M13 (NGC 6205)
Great Globular Cluster in Hercules
M14 (NGC 6402)
M15 (NGC 7078)
M16 (NGC 6611)
Eagle Nebula
M17 (NGC 6618)
Omega Nebula
M18 (NGC 6613)
M19 (NGC 6273)
M20 (NGC 6514)
Trifid Nebula
M21 (NGC 6531)
M22 (NGC 6656)
Sagittarius Cluster
M23 (NGC 6494)
M24 (IC 4715)
Small Sagittarius Star Cloud
M25 (IC 4725)
M26 (NGC 6694)
M27 (NGC 6853)
Dumbbell Nebula
M28 (NGC 6626)
M29 (NGC 6913)
Cooling Tower
M30 (NGC 7099)
M31 (NGC 224)
Andromeda Galaxy
M32 (NGC 221)
Small Andromeda Galaxy
M33 (NGC 598)
Pinwheel Galaxy
M34 (NGC 1039)
M35 (NGC 2168)
M36 (NGC 1960)
M37 (NGC 2099)
M38 (NGC 1912)
Starfish Cluster
M39 (NGC 7092)
M40
Winnecke-4
M41 (NGC 2287)
M42 (NGC 1976)
Orion Nebula
M43 (NGC 1982)
De Mairan's Nebula
M44 (NGC 2632)
Beehive Cluster
M45
Pleiades
M46 (NGC 2437)
M47 (NGC 2422)
M48 (NGC 2548)
M49 (NGC 4472)
M50 (NGC 2323)
M51 (NGC 5194, NGC 5195)
Whirlpool Galaxy
M52 (NGC 7654)
M53 (NGC 5024)
M54 (NGC 6715)
M55 (NGC 6809)
M56 (NGC 6779)
M57 (NGC 6720)
Ring Nebula
M58 (NGC 4579)
M59 (NGC 4621)
M60 (NGC 4649)
M61 (NGC 4303)
M62 (NGC 6266)
M63 (NGC 5055)
Sunflower Galaxy
M64 (NGC 4826)
Black Eye Galaxy
M65 (NGC 3623)
Leo Triplet
M66 (NGC 3627)
Leo Triplet
M67 (NGC 2682)
M68 (NGC 4590)
M69 (NGC 6637)
M70 (NGC 6681)
M71 (NGC 6838)
M72 (NGC 6981)
M73 (NGC 6994)
M74 (NGC 628)
Phantom Galaxy
M75 (NGC 6864)
M76 (NGC 650, NGC 651)
Little Dumbbell Nebula
M77 (NGC 1068)
Cetus A
M78 (NGC 2068)
M79 (NGC 1904)
M80 (NGC 6093)
M81 (NGC 3031)
Bode's Galaxy
M82 (NGC 3034)
Cigar Galaxy
M83 (NGC 5236)
Southern Pinwheel Galaxy
M84 (NGC 4374)
M85 (NGC 4382)
M86 (NGC 4406)
M87 (NGC 4486)
Virgo A
M88 (NGC 4501)
M89 (NGC 4552)
M90 (NGC 4569)
M91 (NGC 4548)
M92 (NGC 6341)
M93 (NGC 2447)
M94 (NGC 4736)
Croc's Eye
M95 (NGC 3351)
M96 (NGC 3368)
M97 (NGC 3587)
Owl Nebula
M98 (NGC 4192)
M99 (NGC 4254)
M100 (NGC 4321)
M101 (NGC 5457)
Pinwheel Galaxy
M102 (NGC 5866)
Spindle Galaxy
M103 (NGC 581)
M104 (NGC 4594)
Sombrero Galaxy
M105 (NGC 3379)
M106 (NGC 4258)
M107 (NGC 6171)
M108 (NGC 3556)
M109 (NGC 3992)
M110 (NGC 205)